Owen’s Defense (Greek Defense) - 1.e4 b6

Owen’s Defense (Greek Defense) – 1.e4 b6

In chess, the choice of an opening can define a player’s strategy and set the tone for the entire game. One such opening is the Owen’s Defense, also known as the Greek Defense or Queen’s Fianchetto Defense, an irregular and relatively less common reply to 1.e4.

Here we look into the details of the Owen’s Defense, explore its move order, the underlying theory, strategy, purpose, and variations.

Furthermore, we will touch upon the history of this opening, its suitability for beginners and intermediates, and its popularity among grandmasters.

Move Order of Owen’s Defense

The Owen’s Defense is initiated with the moves 1.e4 b6.

Owen’s Defense (Greek Defense) - 1.e4 b6
Owen’s Defense (Greek Defense) – 1.e4 b6

In simple terms, Black’s first move is to advance the pawn on the b-file to b6, a seemingly unorthodox approach in comparison to more popular defenses that usually focus on controlling the center early on.

This move prepares the way for Black’s dark-squared bishop to fianchetto on the long diagonal from c8 to b7.

Strategy and Purpose of Owen’s Defense

The Owen’s Defense is aimed at undermining the conventional principles of controlling the center directly, in favor of a more hypermodern approach.

Instead of contesting the center with pawns in the early stage, Black focuses on developing the bishop to control the long diagonal.

Black’s strategy is often to let White occupy the center and then attack it from the sides or counterattack at the right moment.

The purpose of the Owen’s Defense is to lure White into overextending in the center, making them more vulnerable to counterattacks.

It’s a somewhat provocative defense, inviting White to seize the center aggressively, with the intention of subsequently undermining and destabilizing White’s central stronghold.

Theory of Owen’s Defense

The theory of Owen’s Defense is less intricate compared to other popular openings in chess, a characteristic that makes it appealing to certain players.

This opening’s relative obscurity often leaves opponents ill-prepared, requiring them to think independently and make decisions on the spot rather than relying on well-trodden theoretical paths.

Grandmaster Christian Bauer provided some insights into the defense.

He noted that while Black may not be able to equalize as swiftly as in some standard openings with 1…b6, playing against a well-prepared opponent could pose challenges.

However, Bauer also pointed out that such prepared opponents are infrequent in the face of such unorthodox variations as 1…b6.

Even with logical play, White cannot gain more than a marginal advantage from the opening.

Thus, playing the Owen’s Defense involves a level of risk inherent in playing as Black in any opening.

According to Modern Chess Openings (MCO-15), after the moves 2. d4 Bb7, White can gain an advantage with either of the following continuations:

  • Bd3 e6 4. Nf3 c5 5. c3 Nf6 (or 5…cxd4 6.cxd4 Bb4+ 7.Nc3 Nf6 8.Qe2 d5 9.e5 Ne4 10.0-0!? Bxc3 11.bxc3 Nxc3 12.Qe3 Nc6 13.Bb2 Ne4 14.Ba3, which was seen in Adams–Vanderwaeren, Moscow Olympiad 1994, with a large advantage for White) 6. Nbd2 Nc6 7. a3! d5 8. e5 Nfd7 9. b4 Be7 10. 0-0 0-0 11. Re1, leading to a clear advantage for White.
  • Nc3 e6 4. Nf3 Bb4 5. Bd3 Nf6 6. Bg5 h6 7. Bxf6 Bxc3+ 8. bxc3 Qxf6 9. 0-0 d6 10. Nd2 e5 11. f4 Qe7 12. Qg4, as played in the game David–Bauer, France 2005.

Additionally, Black may transpose into forms of the Hippopotamus Defense by playing …g6 and …Bg7, resulting in a double fianchetto formation.

This strategy was employed by Grandmaster Boris Spassky in games 12 and 16 of his 1966 World Championship match against the then-World Champion Tigran Petrosian, with both games ending in draws.

This approach had been developed and played by the Slovakian International Master Maximilian Ujtelky a few years prior.

Variations of Owen’s Defense

While the mainline Owen’s Defense starts with 1.e4 b6, there are several variations based on White’s response.


In the Classical Variation, the game proceeds with 2.d4 Bb7 3.Nc3 e6.

Here, Black often aims to solidify the position with d5 or d6 and further knight development.


The Nimzowitsch Variation occurs after 2.d4 Bb7 3.Bd3.

This setup is named after Aron Nimzowitsch who utilized the Bishop move to prepare for pawn advancement to c4 and subsequent knight development to c3.


The Modern Variation starts with 2.d4 Bb7 3.f3.

Here, White aims to solidify the center and prepare an aggressive pawn storm with e4 and f3.

Guatemala Defense

The Guatemala Defense is a specific variant of Owen’s Defense.

In this variant, instead of developing the Queen’s bishop by fianchettoing it to b7, Black opts for a different plan by playing their bishop to a6, aiming to exchange this bishop as soon as possible.

Guatemala Defense - 1. e4 b6 2. d4 Ba6
Guatemala Defense – 1. e4 b6 2. d4 Ba6

Here’s a step-by-step an example in the Guatemala Defense:

  • 1.e4 b6: As with the Owen’s Defense, Black starts by moving their queen’s pawn up one square to open lines for the bishop and queen.
  • 2.d4 Ba6: Here is where the Guatemala Defense deviates from the main line. Instead of fianchettoing the bishop to b7, Black develops the bishop to a6.
  • 3.Bxa6 Nxa6: White typically responds by exchanging bishops. Black can recapture with the knight to redevelop it to a more active square.
  • 4.Nf3 Qc8: White continues with normal development, while Black prepares to fianchetto the queen’s bishop with the idea of creating counterplay along the long diagonal.
  • 5.0-0 Qb7: White castles, and Black fianchettoes the Queen to b7, focusing on the central and kingside squares.
  • 6.Re1 e6: White positions the rook on an open file, and Black establishes a pawn chain to solidify their position and prepare for further development.
  • 7.c4: White advances the queen’s pawn to gain more control over the center and limit Black’s pawn breaks.
1. e4 b6 2. d4 Ba6 3. Bxa6 Nxa6 4. Nf3 Qc8 5. O-O Qb7 6. Re1 e6 7. c4
1. e4 b6 2. d4 Ba6 3. Bxa6 Nxa6 4. Nf3 Qc8 5. O-O Qb7 6. Re1 e6 7. c4

It’s important to note that while this variant might allow Black to get out of book quickly, it’s often viewed as slightly passive and inferior to other more aggressive defenses.

However, it could still prove to be a surprising weapon in specific game scenarios or against an unprepared opponent.

Additionally, this bishop deployment can also occur on Black’s third move from various move orders, such as 1.e4 e6 2.d4 b6 or 1.d4 b6 2.e4 e6.

In all these cases, Black can play 3…Ba6, transposing back into the Guatemala Defense.

Matinovsky Gambit

The Matinovsky Gambit is an aggressive and lesser-known variant of the Owen’s Defense.

After 1.e4 b6 2.d4 Bb7, instead of the typical 3…e6 or 3…g6 in Owen’s Defense, Black plays 3…f5, launching an early attack against White’s pawn on e4 and looking to disrupt White’s control of the center.

Matinovsky Gambit - 1.e4 b6 2.d4 Bb7 3.Bd3 f5
Matinovsky Gambit – 1.e4 b6 2.d4 Bb7 3.Bd3 f5

Here’s a step-by-step breakdown:

  • 1.e4 b6: As with the Owen’s Defense, Black starts by moving the queen’s pawn up one square to prepare to fianchetto the bishop.
  • 2.d4 Bb7: White responds by controlling the center with their pawns, and Black fianchettoes their queen’s bishop to b7, creating pressure on the e4 pawn.
  • 3.Bd3: White typically develops the bishop to d3 to defend the e4 pawn and prepare for kingside castling.
  • 3…f5: This is the starting point of the Matovinsky Gambit. Rather than passively developing other pieces, Black immediately challenges White’s control of the center by attacking the pawn on e4.

The idea behind the Matovinsky Gambit is to provoke White into capturing the f5 pawn, either immediately with 4.exf5 or later after preparing the move with 4.Nc3 or 4.Qe2.

After 4.exf5, Black has several options, including 4…Nf6 or 4…e6, both with the idea of quickly recapturing the f5 pawn and potentially opening lines for Black’s pieces.

However, this gambit is risky for Black, as it can lead to a weakening of their kingside and potentially expose their king to attack.

It’s therefore considered to be more suitable for aggressive players who are comfortable in sharp, tactical positions.

If White refuses to accept the gambit and instead chooses to continue developing, such as with 4.Nf3 or 4.Nc3, Black’s premature pawn advance could turn out to be a liability.

It’s essential for Black to be well-prepared for all of White’s responses to ensure they can adequately handle the position’s challenges.

Evaluation of Owen’s Defense

Owen’s Defense is generally evaluated at around +0.90 to +1.20 for white

Theory & Continuation Lines of Owen’s Defense

Below we have some common theory and continuation lines from the Owen’s Defense starting move order 1.e4 b6 that you would see at the highest level of play.

2. d4 Bb7 3. Bd3 d5 4. exd5 Qxd5 5. Nf3 e6 6. O-O Nf6 7. Re1 Qd8 8. c4 Bd6 9. Bg5 O-O 10. Nc3 Nbd7 

2. d4 Bb7 3. Bd3 d5 4. exd5 Qxd5 5. Nf3 Qd8 6. c4 g6 7. Nc3 Bg7 8. Bg5 Nf6 9. Qe2 O-O 10. O-O-O Nbd7 11. h4 Re8 12. Bc2 Qc8 13. Ba4 c6 14. Ne5 c5 

2. d4 Bb7 3. Bd3 d5 4. exd5 Qxd5 5. Nf3 Qd8 6. c4 g6 7. Nc3 Bg7 8. Qe2 Nf6 9. Bg5 O-O 10. O-O-O Nbd7 11. Bc2 Qc8 12. h4 Re8 13. Ba4 a6 14. Ne5 

2. d4 Bb7 3. Bd3 e6 4. Nf3 c5 5. c3 Nf6 6. e5 Ne4 7. O-O Be7 8. Re1 f5 9. exf6 Nxf6 10. Bf4 O-O 11. Bg3 Nh5 12. Nbd2 Nc6 13. dxc5 Nxg3 14. hxg3 

2. d4 Bb7 3. Bd3 e6 4. Nf3 c5 5. c3 Nf6 6. Qe2 d5 7. e5 Nfd7 8. Bf4 Qc8 9. a4 Ba6 10. Bb5 Bxb5 11. axb5 c4 12. h4 a6 13. O-O Qb7 14. Na3 h6 15. h5 Bxa3 16. Rxa3 axb5 17. Rxa8 Qxa8 

2. d4 e6 3. Nf3 Bb7 4. Bd3 c5 5. c3 Nf6 6. e5 Ne4 7. Qe2 f5 8. Nbd2 Nxd2 9. Bxd2 cxd4 10. Nxd4 Bc5 11. Nb5 O-O 12. O-O-O a6 13. Nd6 Bxd6 14. exd6 

History of Owen’s Defense

The Owen’s Defense is named after the English Reverend John Owen, a strong amateur player in the 19th century who used this opening to defeat some of the strongest players of his era.

However, it has been found in recorded games as early as the 16th century.

Over the years, despite not being a mainstream choice, the Owen’s Defense has been employed sporadically by top players as a surprise weapon or to disrupt the preparation of opponents well-versed in more conventional openings.

SHOCK your opponents with 1…b6 | Chess Openings for Black | Owen’s Defense

Is Owen’s Defense Good for Beginners or Intermediates?

The Owen’s Defense can be a double-edged sword for beginners.

On one hand, it offers a unique, less explored pathway to the middle and endgame, which could provide a psychological edge against an unprepared opponent.

On the other hand, it doesn’t adhere to traditional opening principles, which could hinder a beginner’s understanding of key concepts like control of the center.

For intermediate players, the Owen’s Defense can serve as a useful tool to diversify their opening repertoire.

The indirect control of the center and strategic counterattacks inherent in this defense can help enhance a player’s understanding of these hypermodern concepts.

How Often Owen’s Defense Is Played at the Grandmaster Level

The Owen’s Defense is relatively rare at the grandmaster level.

Due to its deviation from traditional opening principles and the higher effectiveness of other hypermodern defenses, it’s not often seen in top-tier professional chess.

However, some grandmasters have been known to use it as a surprise weapon, particularly in faster time control games.

When executed correctly, the Owen’s Defense can catch an opponent off guard, as many players are not as familiar with its unique positional dynamics and ensuing middlegame strategies.

FAQs – Owen’s Defense (1.e4 b6)

1. What is Owen’s Defense (Greek Defense)?

Owen’s Defense is a somewhat uncommon opening in chess that begins with the moves 1.e4 b6.

Named after Englishman John Owen, it’s sometimes also referred to as the Greek Defense.

The primary strategy in this opening is to quickly fianchetto the queen’s bishop to target the opponent’s central pawn on e4.

However, it’s considered slightly passive since it doesn’t immediately fight for control of the center.

2. Why is the Owen’s Defense sometimes referred to as the Greek Defense?

While this opening is predominantly known as Owen’s Defense, named after the English chess player John Owen who popularized it in the 19th century, it is also sometimes called the Greek Defense.

This is because it was used in a few games by Greek players in the 1960s. However, the term Greek Defense isn’t as widely used.

3. What are the key strategies in the Owen’s Defense?

In the Owen’s Defense, black quickly fianchettoes the queen’s bishop to b7, attacking the white pawn on e4 and controlling the long diagonal.

This can be followed by playing e6, allowing for the bishop on f8 to be developed, and d5, attacking the center.

However, while this opening can lead to solid positions, it is considered somewhat passive, as it allows white to take control of the center early in the game.

4. Why isn’t Owen’s Defense commonly used at the top level?

While the Owen’s Defense is perfectly playable and can be a surprise weapon, it’s not often seen in top-level chess because it doesn’t immediately challenge white’s control of the center.

Many chess principles emphasize the importance of central control, and openings like the Sicilian Defense or the French Defense, which immediately challenge white’s center, are more commonly employed at the highest levels.

5. How can White counter the Owen’s Defense?

Against the Owen’s Defense, white can play 2.d4, asserting control over the center.

A common line might continue 2…Bb7 3.Bd3, defending the pawn on e4 while developing a piece.

White should focus on maintaining control of the center, developing their pieces harmoniously, and preventing any potential counter-attacks from black.

White has the opportunity to exploit the somewhat passive nature of the Owen’s Defense by establishing a dominant central presence and a faster piece development.

6. Are there any famous games played with the Owen’s Defense?

While the Owen’s Defense isn’t particularly common at the top level, there have been some notable games.

For instance, in the game Bent Larsen vs. Boris Spassky (Havana, 1965), Spassky managed to defeat Larsen with the Owen’s Defense.

Reviewing such games can be beneficial in understanding the potential tactical and strategic ideas in this opening.

7. Can you recommend any learning resources for the Owen’s Defense?

Chess books, online video lessons, and databases are excellent resources for learning more about the Owen’s Defense.

Some chess books also cover lesser-known openings and can provide insights into the strategies and tactics used in the Owen’s Defense.

And of course using a chess engine to look at potential lines is also very helpful.


The Owen’s Defense, with its provocative first move and unconventional approach, remains a fascinating element of chess openings.

While it is less commonly seen on the highest stage of professional play, its distinctive hypermodern style continues to intrigue players of all levels, from amateurs to grandmasters.

Despite its potential drawbacks for beginners, it can be an effective part of an intermediate player’s toolkit and a surprise strategy in the hands of a grandmaster.

The Owen’s Defense underscores the beautiful complexity of chess, where the unorthodox can challenge the conventional, and strategic depth often prevails over prescriptive rules.

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