Sicilian Defense, Najdorf Variation - 1. e4 c5 2. Nf3 d6 3. d4 cxd4 4. Nxd4 Nf6 5. Nc3 a6

Sicilian Defense, Najdorf Variation (Theory, Strategy, Lines)

The Sicilian Defense, Najdorf Variation is an all-time classic in chess.

Renowned for its strategic depth and tactical intricacies, it has become one of the most respected and heavily analyzed chess openings in history.

With illustrious names such as Bobby Fischer and Garry Kasparov linked to its usage, the Najdorf Variation stands out as one of the premium chess openings.

This article will look into the key aspects of the Najdorf Variation, providing a comprehensive understanding of its move order, theory, strategy, purpose, variations, and history.

We’ll also examine its suitability for beginners and intermediates and its frequency of play at the Grandmaster level.

Move Order of the Najdorf Variation

The Najdorf Variation of the Sicilian Defense begins with the following sequence of moves:

  1. e4 c5
  2. Nf3 d6
  3. d4 cxd4
  4. Nxd4 Nf6
  5. Nc3 a6
Sicilian Defense, Najdorf Variation - 1. e4 c5 2. Nf3 d6 3. d4 cxd4 4. Nxd4 Nf6 5. Nc3 a6
Sicilian Defense, Najdorf Variation – 1. e4 c5 2. Nf3 d6 3. d4 cxd4 4. Nxd4 Nf6 5. Nc3 a6

The crucial move that defines the Najdorf Variation is 5…a6.

This move not only provides a flexible foundation for Black’s development but also prevents White’s knight or bishop from settling comfortably on the b5-square.

Theory, Strategy and Purpose of the Najdorf Variation

At the heart of the Najdorf Variation’s strategy is Black’s aim to apply pressure on White’s e4-pawn.

This is typically executed through a queenside minority attack with …b5, …Bb7, and placing a knight on d5 or c4 via b6.

The strategic depth of this variation allows Black to combat White’s central control with fluid piece development and the creation of pawn imbalances.

The purpose of the Najdorf Variation is multifaceted, combining defensive solidity, positional flexibility, and tactical potential.

It provides Black with a platform to counter-attack and challenges White’s attempts to seize an early advantage.

Variations of the Najdorf Variation

Within the Najdorf Variation, there are several key sub-variations.

Each of these different lines adds its unique flavor to the game, giving players multiple strategic and tactical options to choose from.

One of these sub-variations includes the Scheveningen setup, where Black delays the …a6 pawn move in favor of early development of their minor pieces.

English Attack of the Najdorf Variation

Another popular sub-variation is the English Attack, characterized by f3, Be3, Qd2, and long-side castling by White.

The standard line of the Najdorf English Attack is:

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 a6 6.Be3 e5 7.Nb3 Be6 8.f3 Be7 9.Qd2 O-O 10.O-O-O Nbd7

Sicilian Defense: Open, Najdorf, English Attack - 1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 a6 6.Be3 e5 7.Nb3 Be6 8.f3 Be7 9.Qd2 O-O 10.O-O-O Nbd7
Sicilian Defense: Open, Najdorf, English Attack – 1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 a6 6.Be3 e5 7.Nb3 Be6 8.f3 Be7 9.Qd2 O-O 10.O-O-O Nbd7

This variation usually leads to highly aggressive and complex positions.

Classical Main Line: 6…e6

In the realm of the Sicilian Defense, Najdorf Variation, the Classical Main Line with 6…e6 stands as one of the most fascinating branches of the opening.

With its complexity and strategic richness, the Classical Main Line brings a unique perspective to the board.

The Main Move: 7.f4

The move 6…e6 signals the start of the Classical Main Line.

Back in the early days, 7.Qf3 was the popular response, but it was neutralized by 7…h6, offering no apparent advantage to White.

Consequently, modern theory leans heavily towards the move 7.f4.

This threatens 8.e5, presenting Black with an array of possible responses:


The move 7…Be7 opens up two significant sub-variations:

8.Qf3 Qc7 9.0-0-0 Nbd7

This sequence, known as the old main line, often sees White respond with either 10.g4 or 10.Bd3, each leading to an enormous body of opening theory.

8.Qf3 h6 9.Bh4 g5

This sequence brings us to the Argentine/Goteborg Variation, famously played simultaneously by Argentine players Panno, Pilnik, and Najdorf against Soviet grandmasters in the 1955 Goteborg Interzonal.

Modern theory, backed by extensive AI analysis, recommends 11.Bg3.

Black can then proceed with 11…Ne5, and following the exchange of knights after 12.Qh5 Bxg5 13.Nf3 Nxf3 14.Qxf3, the position remains balanced.


This move has become a popular choice at the master level.


This leads to the Polugaevsky Variation, where Black ignores White’s threat and expands on the queenside with 8.e5 dxe5 9.fxe5 Qc7, followed by either 10.exf6 Qe5+ 11.Be2 Qxg5 or 10.Qe2 Nfd7 11.0-0-0 Bb7.


This move was a favorite of Garry Kasparov before he began exclusively playing 7…Qb6.


This move was popularized by Boris Gelfand.


This move is considered risky due to the response 8.e5.


This move, known as the Poisoned Pawn Deferred, can lead to sharp positions, although the line 8.Bh4 Qb6 9.a3 has proven to be challenging for Black at the highest level.

The Classical Main Line in the Sicilian Defense, Najdorf Variation, offers players a plethora of rich and complex strategic choices.

Through its dynamic positions and tactical richness, it continues to captivate players of all levels, contributing to the enduring appeal of the Sicilian Defense.

English Attack: 6.Be3

In the Sicilian Defense, Najdorf Variation, the English Attack, marked by 6.Be3 followed by moves such as f3, g4, Qd2 and 0-0-0, has emerged as the modern main line.

Gaining immense popularity since the early 1990s, it has undergone intensive analysis and has led to a wealth of theoretical material.

Stockfish prefers the 6.Be3 line of the Najdorf:

English Attack: 6.Be3 - Najdorf
English Attack: 6.Be3 – Najdorf Variation of the Sicilian

Key Developments of the English Attack

Several significant lines are associated with the English Attack, providing players with a broad spectrum of strategic possibilities.

Classical 6…e5

After 6…e5, the next step for White often depends on how Black responds:

  • If White plays 7.Nb3, Black usually proceeds with 7…Be6, seeking to control the d5-square. In response, White commonly plays 8.f3, which allows for Qd2 in the next move. If White prematurely plays 8.Qd2, Black could counter with 8…Ng4.
  • If White opts for 7.Nf3, Black’s primary options are 7…Be7 and 7…Qc7.

Transposition to the Scheveningen: 6…e6

By playing 6…e6, Black may aim to transpose the game into the Scheveningen variation.

White can follow the standard English Attack with 7.f3 or opt for the sharper Hungarian Attack (also known as the Perenyi Attack) with 7.g4.

Black can switch to 7…e5, arguing that White’s g-pawn move constitutes an overextension.

The game reaches a dynamic equilibrium after 8.Nf5 g6 9.g5!?.

Knight Move: 6…Ng4

In this line, Black disrupts White’s plans with 6…Ng4.

White typically continues with 7.Bg5 h6 8.Bh4 g5 9.Bg3 Bg7.

However, the character of this position vastly differs from the ones arising after 6…e6 and 6…e5.

To preclude the knight jump, White might opt for 6.f3 instead of 6.Be3, but this move eliminates the chance to play the Hungarian Attack and opens other possibilities for Black, such as 6…Qb6 and 6…b5.

Verbeterde List Approach: 6…Nbd7

Another significant line in the English Attack involves the move 6…Nbd7, following the Verbeterde List strategy.

The goal of this move is to adopt the English Attack while sidestepping the Perenyi Attack. Now, 7.g4 is less threatening because 6…Nbd7 offers Black more flexibility, allowing the c8-bishop to target g4 and the d7-knight to access promising squares.

The English Attack with 6.Be3 illustrates the depth and complexity of the Sicilian Defense, Najdorf Variation.

It offers a strategic richness that caters to a wide array of chess styles and preferences.

Verbeterde List: 6…Nbd7

The Verbeterde List with 6…Nbd7 is another intriguing aspect of the Sicilian Defense, Najdorf Variation.

Historically, it was a common reply until the mid-1960s, when 7.Bc4 effectively curbed its popularity.

However, this variation has seen a resurgence thanks to new strategies developed by Dutch players, leading to it being referred to as De Verbeterde List, or “The Improved Stratagem.”

The aim is to delay …e6 to retain dynamic options, such as playing …e7–e5 in one move.

The Verbeterde List has experienced significant developments and nuances over time, with many of them emerging as a result of high-level games.

7.f4 Qc7 8.Qf3 h6 9.Bh4 e5

This setup was discovered by Dutch player Lody Kuling and has gained significant attention.

The key idea is to gain time over …e6 by playing …e7–e5 in a single move. Later, it was found that 9…g5! is even more potent.

7.f4 Qc7 8.Qf3 b5

This move marks the Neo Verbeterde List, an innovative way to play the Verbeterde List.

The strategy includes fianchettoing the bishop to b7, thus expanding on the flank and adding pressure on the center.

7.Bc4 Qb6

This move was introduced by Lenier Dominguez, with the idea of gaining a tempo by attacking b2.

Black can then proceed with 8…e6 and continue development.

The entire variation with 6…Nbd7 is covered extensively in the book by Ľubomír Ftáčnik in the chapter “Blood Diamond”.

7.f4/Qe2 g6

This is known as Grischuk’s Verbeterde List.

The idea here is to rapidly castle kingside and then launch an attack with …b5–b4, without wasting any time moving the e-pawn.

It’s a modern approach against both 7.f4 and 7.Qe2.

The Verbeterde List with 6…Nbd7 provides players with a fresh and dynamic perspective on the Sicilian Defense, Najdorf Variation.

It serves as a testament to the richness of this opening and its enduring potential for innovation and strategic depth.

Fischer–Sozin/Lipnitzky Attack: 6.Bc4

Introduced in the 1930s by Veniamin Sozin and later popularized by Bobby Fischer, the Sozin Attack employs 6.Bc4 with the aim of exerting pressure on f7.

Consequently, Black typically responds with 6…e6 7.Bb3 b5.

This line frequently appeared in top-level chess through the 1970s.

In recent times, the Sozin has lost some of its appeal due to 7…Nbd7, where Black intends to follow up with …Nc5.

White can avoid this possibility by choosing 7.0-0, but this move precludes the aggressive option of castling long.

Despite its decreased popularity, the Fischer–Sozin/Lipnitzky Attack remains an interesting and strategic choice, demonstrating the attacking potential of White’s pieces in the Najdorf Variation.

Classical/Opocensky Variation: 6.Be2

In response to the success of various dynamic lines in the Najdorf Variation, White can opt for a more quiet and positional game with 6.Be2, also known as the Classical or Opocensky Variation.

After 6.Be2, Black can choose to transpose into a Scheveningen Variation with 6…e6, or maintain the game in Najdorf lines with 6…e5.

A third option is to play 6…Nbd7, following the spirit of The Verbeterde List.

This approach is also called The Verbeterde List Unlimited, illustrating the flexible and dynamic nature of this line.

While less aggressive than other variations, the Classical/Opocensky Variation underlines the strategic depth of the Najdorf Variation and offers a more measured, positional style of play.

This approach emphasizes piece development, pawn structure, and longer-term strategic goals over immediate tactical skirmishes.

Amsterdam Variation: 6.f4

The Amsterdam Variation focuses on early pawn expansion on the kingside, aiming for an assertive, space-gaining strategy.

This setup offers multiple options for Black:

  1. 6…e5 7.Nf3 Nbd7 8.a4 Be7 9.Bd3 0-0: This line aims for a quick piece development and king safety.
  2. 6…Qc7 7.Bd3: With this, Black prepares to challenge White’s control of the center.
  3. 6…e6 7.Be2: In this line, Black prefers a more restrained approach, developing slowly and solidly.

GM Daniel King suggests the move 6…g6 against the Amsterdam Variation, which results in a more defensive kingside pawn structure.

The plan is to counterattack along the g1–a7 diagonal with a move like …Qb6, hampering White’s ability to castle.

For instance: 6…g6 7.Nf3 Bg7 8.a4 Nc6 (note 8…Nc6 instead of the usual Najdorf …Nbd7, since c6 offers more flexibility for the knight with a queen on b6) 9.Bd3 Qb6.

Adams Attack: 6.h3

Introduced by Weaver Adams mid-twentieth century, this seemingly peculiar pawn move has been predominantly employed as a surprise weapon against the Najdorf.

If Black persists with 6…e5, White can answer with 7.Nde2 and follow up with g4 and Ng3, vying for control over the weak light squares by playing g5.

Hence, it is advised that Black thwarts g4 with 7…h5.

Alternatively, Black can opt for a Scheveningen setup with 6…e6 followed by 7.g4 b5 8.Bg2 Bb7.

This forces White to spend additional time defending the e4-pawn, as …b4 is a looming threat.

It wasn’t until 2008 that a potential solution for Black was discovered. After 9.0-0 b4, White can opt for the positional sacrifice 10.Nd5!, causing long-term weaknesses for Black and an open e-file for White to exploit.

This line has since gained popularity across all levels of play.

Other Sixth Moves for White

Apart from the main lines detailed above, White has other options: 6.f3, 6.g3, and 6.a4 are less common but still respected responses to the Najdorf.

Moves like 6.Bd3, 6.Qf3, 6.Rg1 (the Petronic Attack), 6.Nb3, 6.a3, 6.h4, 6.Qe2, and 6.Qd3 are infrequently played but can serve as surprise weapons.

Other rare moves include 6.g4, 6.Nf3, 6.b3, and 6.Bd2.

These alternative moves, while less conventional, allow for a broad spectrum of strategic plans and ideas.

Sicilian Defense: Open, Najdorf, Anti-English Variation

The anti-English variation of the Najdorf has been rising in popularity since the 1950s and is more popular in modern times than at any point in its history due to the endorsements from modern chess engines.

It’s characterized by the move order: 1. e4 c5 2. Nf3 d6 3. Nc3 Nf6 4. d4 cxd4 5. Nxd4 a6 

Sicilian Defense: Open, Najdorf, Anti-English Variation - 1. e4 c5 2. Nf3 d6 3. Nc3 Nf6 4. d4 cxd4 5. Nxd4 a6
Sicilian Defense: Open, Najdorf, Anti-English Variation – 1. e4 c5 2. Nf3 d6 3. Nc3 Nf6 4. d4 cxd4 5. Nxd4 a6

It can also move to a standard Open Najdorf via:

1. e4 c5 2. Nf3 d6 3. Nc3 Nf6 4. d4 cxd4 5. Nxd4 a6 6. f3 e5 7. Nb3 Be7 

The standard move order in the Open Najdorf is:

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 a6 6.f3 e5 7.Nb3 Be7

HOW TO PLAY Sicilian Defense Najdorf Variation by Grandmaster Anish Giri

Evaluation of the Sicilian Defense, Najdorf Variation

The Najdorf Variation is generally evaluated at around +0.30 to +0.55 for white.

Theory & Continuation Lines of the Sicilian Defense, Najdorf Variation

Below we have some common theory and continuation lines from the Najdorf Variation that you would see at the highest level of play.

6. Be3 e5 7. Nb3 Be6 8. f4 exf4 9. Bxf4 Nc6 10. Qd2 d5 11. exd5 Nxd5 12. O-O-O Nxf4 13. Qxf4 Qb8 14. Qe4 Qe5 15. Qxe5 Nxe5 16. Re1 f6 17. Nd4 Bf7 18. Nf3 O-O-O 19. Nxe5 fxe5 

6. Be3 e5 7. Nb3 Be6 8. f3 Nbd7 9. Qd2 h5 10. Nd5 Nxd5 11. exd5 Bf5 12. Na5 Qc7 13. c4 Be7 14. b4 O-O 15. Be2 Bh4+ 16. g3 Bd8 17. O-O Bh3 

6. Be3 e5 7. Nb3 Be6 8. Be2 Nbd7 9. f4 exf4 10. Bxf4 Ne5 11. Qd4 Qc7 12. O-O-O Rc8 13. Qa4+ Bd7 14. Qa5 Be7 15. Rhe1 O-O 16. Qxc7 Rxc7 17. Nd4 Ng6 18. Bg5 Rc5 19. Bxf6 Bxf6 20. Nd5 Bxd4 

6. Be3 e5 7. Nb3 Be6 8. Qd2 Nbd7 9. f3 h5 10. a4 Rc8 11. a5 h4 12. Be2 Be7 13. O-O h3 14. g3 O-O 15. Rfd1 Bc4 16. Kh1 Be6 17. Bf1 

6. Be3 e5 7. Nb3 Be6 8. f3 h5 9. Be2 Nbd7 10. f4 g6 11. h3 Rc8 12. O-O Rxc3 13. bxc3 Nxe4 14. Qe1 Qc7 15. c4 f5 16. Bd3 Bxc4 17. Na5 Be6 18. Bxe4 fxe4 19. fxe5 Nxe5 20. Bd4 Bg7 

6. f3 e5 7. Nb3 Be6 8. Be3 h5 9. Qd2 Nbd7 10. a4 Rc8 11. a5 h4 12. Be2 Be7 13. O-O h3 14. g4 Nh7 15. Rfd1 O-O 16. Kh1 Re8 17. Nc1 Bg5 

6. Be2 e5 7. Nb3 Be7 8. Be3 Be6 9. Nd5 Nbd7 10. Qd3 O-O 11. a4 Bxd5 12. exd5 Ne8 13. O-O Bg5 14. Bxg5 Qxg5 15. Na5 Rb8 16. Qe3 

History of the Najdorf Variation

The Najdorf Variation is named after the Polish-Argentine Grandmaster Miguel Najdorf, despite him not being the first strong player to use it.

The variation’s popularity soared as it became the favored choice of two of the greatest players in chess history, Bobby Fischer and Garry Kasparov.

Fischer’s legendary expertise in the Najdorf Variation significantly contributed to its worldwide recognition, while Kasparov further deepened the theory and popularity of the opening.

The Najdorf Variation continues to be a go-to choice for many contemporary top-level players, attesting to its enduring relevance in modern chess.

Is the Najdorf Variation Is Good for Beginners or Intermediates?

While the Najdorf Variation is incredibly deep and complex, it is not solely the domain of top-level players.

The fundamental principles behind the variation, such as pawn structure, piece development, and strategic planning, can greatly benefit beginners and intermediate players.

However, it’s important to note that the strategic and tactical complexity of the Najdorf Variation may pose significant challenges to less experienced players.

A certain level of understanding and experience in chess is required to navigate the various intricacies and pitfalls of this opening.

How Often the Najdorf Variation Is Played at the Grandmaster Level

The Najdorf Variation holds a prominent place at the grandmaster level, with frequent appearances in top-level competitions.

Its unique combination of flexibility, strategic depth, and tactical richness makes it a popular choice among the world’s best players.

From historical giants like Fischer and Kasparov to contemporary grandmasters, the Najdorf Variation remains an integral part of the elite chess landscape.

FAQs – Sicilian Defense, Najdorf Variation

1. What is the Sicilian Defense, Najdorf Variation in chess?

The Sicilian Defense, Najdorf Variation is a widely respected and deeply studied chess opening.

Named after the Polish-Argentine grandmaster Miguel Najdorf, it begins with the following moves:

e4 c5
Nf3 d6
d4 cxd4
Nxd4 Nf6
Nc3 a6
The key characteristic of this variation is Black’s 5…a6 move, aiming to control the b5-square, prevent White’s pieces from establishing strong posts, and maintain flexible development.

It’s often used by players who prefer complex, tactical battles.

2. Why is the Sicilian Defense, Najdorf Variation, compared to the “Cadillac” or “Rolls-Royce” of chess openings?

The Sicilian Defense, Najdorf Variation, is referred to as the “Cadillac” or “Rolls-Royce” of chess openings because it offers depth, flexibility, and multiple possibilities for both offensive and defensive play.

Like these luxury cars, it signifies quality, precision, and sophistication.

3. What are the advantages of playing 5…a6 in the Sicilian Defense, Najdorf Variation?

Playing 5…a6 in the Najdorf Variation serves several purposes:

  • It prevents White from immediately jumping to b5 with a knight or a bishop.
  • It prepares for a potential b5 push, aiming to expand on the queenside.
  • It adds control to the b5 and g4 squares, reducing the scope of White’s minor pieces.
  • It gives Black the flexibility to adapt to various setups, contributing to the robustness and versatility of this variation.

4. Why didn’t Miguel Najdorf play 5…e5 immediately?

Playing 5…e5 immediately can lead to some positional concessions for Black.

After 6.Bb5+! Bd7 (or 6…Nbd7 7.Nf5) 7.Bxd7+ Nbxd7 (or Qxd7) 8.Nf5, the knight on f5 becomes difficult to dislodge without making other concessions.

Therefore, the Najdorf Variation favors 5…a6 to maintain flexibility and avoid these early challenges.

5. What does Black typically aim for in the Sicilian Defense, Najdorf Variation?

In the Sicilian Defense, Najdorf Variation, Black often plans a queenside minority attack to pressure White’s e4-pawn.

This attack is often executed through …b5, …Bb7, and placing a knight on d5 or c4 via b6.

These strategic advances can help Black challenge White’s pawn structure and seize initiative.

6. What does opposite-side castling imply in games using the Sicilian Defense, Najdorf Variation?

Opposite-side castling in the Sicilian Defense, Najdorf Variation often signals a highly dynamic and tactical game.

With kings on opposite wings, both players are free to launch pawn storms and attacks against the enemy king without weakening their own king’s safety significantly.

These games typically involve aggressive moves and sharp tactical play.

7. Which famous players have regularly used the Sicilian Defense, Najdorf Variation?

Notable chess grandmasters who have relied on the Sicilian Defense, Najdorf Variation include Bobby Fischer and Garry Kasparov.

Though it should be mentioned that Kasparov often transposed into a Scheveningen setup.

These top players have utilized this opening to secure many victories, contributing to the popularity and esteemed reputation of the Najdorf Variation.


In the world of chess openings, the Sicilian Defense, Najdorf Variation, stands out as a testament to strategic depth and tactical richness.

From its distinctive move order to its complex sub-variations, it encapsulates the intellectual challenges that make chess a beloved game for millions.

While it demands a degree of expertise and understanding, it continues to be a favored choice across all levels of play, a hallmark of its enduring appeal.

Whether you’re an aspiring beginner, an ambitious intermediate, or an established grandmaster, the Najdorf Variation offers a world of opportunities to explore, learn, and enjoy.

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