# Center Game – 1. e4 e5 2. d4 exd4 (Theory, Strategy, Variations)

The Center Game is a chess opening that has a rich historical background, intriguing theoretical principles, and strategic complexity.

The opening sequence, characterized by the initial moves 1. e4 e5 2. d4 exd4, sets the tone for an aggressive game.

Below we look into the Center Game, exploring its move order, theory, variations, and history.

We’ll also look at its suitability for beginners and intermediate players, and how frequently it is played at the grandmaster level.

## Move Order of the Center Game

In the Center Game, the standard opening move order begins with 1. e4 e5, followed by 2. d4 exd4.

White’s second move initiates an attack on the center e-pawn, while concurrently opening up the d-file for the rook and queen.

However, the sequence also necessitates the premature movement of the queen, which allows Black the opportunity to develop their pieces with a gain in tempo through 3…Nc6.

Typically, the game proceeds with 3.Qxd4 Nc6, after which White must decide on the optimal square for retreating their queen.

## Theory, Strategy and Purpose of the Center Game

The central idea behind the Center Game is the aggressive challenge of the center and the strategic opening of the d-file.

While this opening necessitates an early queen move – which can potentially expose it to attacks and waste tempi – it also brings with it certain benefits for White.

After the common 4.Qe3 retreat, the white queen hampers Black’s ability to advance the d5 pawn.

Furthermore, the clearance of the back rank hastens queenside castling and can pave the way for an expedient attack.

Additionally, from e3, the queen can proceed to g3, adding pressure to Black’s g7-square.

## Variations of the Center Game

The Center Game boasts a variety of intriguing variations.

The most commonly seen sequence is 3.Qxd4 Nc6 (ECO code C22), followed by a retreat of the white queen.

Here, 4.Qe3, known as Paulsen’s Attack, seems to be the best choice.

Black usually continues with 4…Nf6, proceeding into complex lines that often involve a pawn sacrifice on White’s part (8.Qg3!?).

Black also has solid alternatives such as 5…Be7! which aims for the …d7–d5 break, as well as 4…g6, and 4…Bb4+.

A noteworthy deviation from the standard Center Game is the Danish Gambit, which emerges after 3.c3.

Other less common but intriguing options for White include 3.Nf3 or 3.Bc4, which both postpone the recapture of the queen pawn.

The Center Game also features the rare Halasz Gambit (3.f4?!) which, though dubious, has yet to be definitively refuted.

Let’s look at these variations in a little more detail:

### 3.Qxd4 Nc6 Variation

In the nearly universal sequence of moves in the Center Game, 3.Qxd4 Nc6 (ECO code C22) is prevalent.

Upon this move, White has multiple options for the queen’s retreat.

One possible move is 4.Qa4, mirroring a fairly common variation of the Scandinavian Defense (1.e4 d5 2.exd5 Qxd5 3.Nc3 Qa5) in reverse.

However, this move is less popular in the Center Game, mainly due to unfavorable results for White in tournament play.

A more promising choice is 4.Qe3, known as Paulsen’s Attack. In this line, White’s intention is to castle queenside.

Black’s usual response is 4…Nf6, leading to a typical line of 5.Nc3 Bb4 6.Bd2 0-0 7.0-0-0 Re8.

White may try to inject complexity into the game by proposing the pawn sacrifice 8.Qg3!? intending 8…Rxe4 9.a3!, a move famously played by Shabalov.

The most effective counter seems to be the quiet 9…Ba5. Despite providing some compensation for the sacrificed pawn, this line is generally considered satisfactory for Black.

Black also has the option of choosing a more solid approach with 5…Be7! intending …d7–d5, which seeks to open up lines as quickly as possible.

Other strong responses include 4…g6, and 4…Bb4+, both of which have yielded successful results in the past.

### 3.c3 Danish Gambit

3.c3 initiates the Danish Gambit, a bold and aggressive chess opening where White sacrifices one or two pawns in exchange for a rapid development and control of the center.

Following 3.c3, the intention is to recapture the pawn on d4 with the c3 pawn, thereby freeing the ‘Queen’s Bishop’ to develop.

While the gambit is risky and can potentially expose White to early attacks, it can also lead to highly aggressive positions with sharp tactical opportunities.

### 3.Nf3 or 3.Bc4 Variation

The decision to delay the recapture of the queen pawn is a standard concept in the Scandinavian Defense (1.e4 d5 2.exd5 Nf6), but the move 3.Nf3 is less commonly employed in the Center Game.

In fact, 3.Nf3 is considered the best variation for white.

Using this variation, Black can safely transpose to the Scotch Game, Petrov’s Defense or the Philidor Defense, or even adopt a line recommended by Alexander Alekhine, which starts with 3…Bc5 4.Nxd4 Nf6. If White plays 5.e5, Black responds with 5…Qe7.

Similar ideas can also be realized following 3.Bc4, another less common move in the Center Game.

This move is referred to in older chess literature as the Center Gambit.

### 3.f4?! (Halasz Gambit)

The Halasz Gambit (3.f4?!) is a rarely utilized variation in the Center Game.

Despite its origins dating back to at least 1840, it has been championed more recently by Hungarian correspondence player Dr. György Halasz.

The gambit, which includes an ambitious pawn sacrifice, appears dubious on the surface, but it has not been definitively refuted.

As such, it offers an element of surprise and can lead to complex, rich positions that deviate from well-trodden theoretical paths.

## Evaluation of the Center Game

The Center Game is generally evaluated at around -0.05 to -0.35 for white.

## Theory & Continuation Lines of the Center Game

Below we have some common theory and continuation lines from the Center Game starting move order 1. e4 e5 2. d4 exd4 that you would see at the highest level of play.

2… exd4 3. Nf3 Bc5 4. Nxd4 Nf6 5. Nc3 O-O 6. Bg5 Re8 7. Qd3 Nc6 8. Nxc6 bxc6 9. f4 h6 10. Bh4 d5

2… exd4 3. Nf3 Bb4+ 4. Nbd2 c5 5. Bd3 d6 6. O-O Ne7 7. Nb3 Nbc6 8. a3 Ba5 9. Nxa5 Qxa5 10. b4 Qd8

2… exd4 3. Nf3 Bb4+ 4. c3 dxc3 5. Nxc3 Bxc3+ 6. bxc3 Ne7 7. Bc4 O-O 8. O-O d6 9. Nd4 Nbc6 10. Re1 Ng6 11. f4 Bd7 12. Rb1 Qf6 13. Rf1 Rac8

2… exd4 3. Nf3 Bb4+ 4. c3 dxc3 5. Nxc3 Nf6 6. e5 Ne4 7. Qd4 Bxc3+ 8. bxc3 d5 9. Bb5+ c6 10. Bd3 O-O 11. O-O Bf5 12. c4 Re8 13. Re1

2… exd4 3. Nf3 Bc5 4. Bc4 Nf6 5. O-O O-O 6. e5 d5 7. Bb3 Ne4 8. c3 dxc3 9. Qxd5 Qxd5 10. Bxd5 Nd2 11. Nbxd2 cxd2 12. Bxd2 Rd8 13. Be4 Nd7 14. Rfd1 Nf8 15. Bc3 Re8 16. b4 Bb6 17. b5

2… exd4 3. Nf3 Bb4+ 4. Nbd2 c5 5. Bd3 d6 6. O-O Ne7 7. Nb3 Nbc6 8. a3 Ba5 9. Nxa5 Qxa5 10. b4 Qc7 11. Bf4 b6 12. c3 Bg4 13. cxd4 Ng6 14. Qd2 Bxf3 15. dxc5 bxc5 16. bxc5 Nxf4 17. Qxf4 Rd8

## History of the Center Game

The Center Game is steeped in chess history. Mostly abandoned by 1900 due to a lack of demonstrated advantage for White, the Center Game found few proponents among top players.

The likes of Jacques Mieses, Savielly Tartakower, and Rudolf Spielmann were among the last of the strong players to adopt it.

However, the opening experienced a resurgence in the 1980s when Alexander Shabalov began to use it.

Subsequently, Alexei Shirov, Michael Adams, Judit Polgár, and Alexander Morozevich further contributed to the Center Game theory, forcing a re-evaluation of lines once considered favorable for Black.

## Is the Center Game Good for Beginners or Intermediates?

The Center Game is a solid choice for both beginners and intermediate players, offering ample opportunities for learning and strategic growth.

For beginners, the opening provides a clear goal – controlling the center – which is a fundamental principle of chess.

It also familiarizes them with the concept of developing with a tempo.

For intermediate players, the Center Game presents a wealth of complex scenarios that facilitate the honing of analytical skills and tactical acuity.

## How Often the Center Game Is Played at the Grandmaster Level

While the Center Game is not the most common choice among grandmasters due to its early queen move and the perceived advantage for Black in some lines, it still sees some usage.

Its resurgence since the 1980s has led to it being played more frequently, with several grandmasters such as Alexander Shabalov, Alexei Shirov, Michael Adams, Judit Polgár, and Alexander Morozevich making significant contributions to its theory.

Ian Nepomniachtchi has also been known to experiment with this opening.

## FAQs – Center Game

### 1. What is the Center Game in chess and how does it start?

The Center Game is a chess opening that begins with the moves 1. e4 e5 2. d4 exd4.

After the initial moves, the game usually continues with 3.Qxd4 Nc6, where Black develops a knight with a gain of tempo by attacking the white queen.

It’s important to note that 3.c3, despite stemming from the same position, is considered a separate opening known as the Danish Gambit.

### 2. What are the general concepts behind the Center Game?

With its second move, White challenges the center by attacking the e5 pawn and also opens up the d-file, which can be used by the rook and queen for attack.

However, this comes at a cost of moving the queen early, allowing Black to develop with a tempo via 3…Nc6.

In White’s favor, after 4.Qe3, the most commonly played retreat, the position of the white queen hinders Black’s ability to play …d5.

Also, White can quickly clear the back rank of pieces which can facilitate queenside castling and potentially allow White to develop a quick attack.

From e3, the white queen can later move to g3 to put pressure on Black’s g7-square.

### 3. What is the history of the Center Game?

The Center Game is an old opening, largely abandoned by 1900 as no advantage for White could be consistently demonstrated.

Jacques Mieses, Savielly Tartakower, and Rudolf Spielmann were some of the last strong players to adopt it.

The opening was revived in the 1980s by elite player Alexander Shabalov, and later, Alexei Shirov, Michael Adams, Judit Polgár, and Alexander Morozevich contributed to the theory of the Center Game by forcing re-evaluation of lines long thought to favor Black.

In recent years, Ian Nepomniachtchi has also experimented with the opening.

### 4. What are the key variations in the Center Game?

The nearly universal sequence of moves in the Center Game is 3.Qxd4 Nc6 (ECO code C22).

Now White has a choice of retreat squares for the queen.

The best move for the queen seems to be 4.Qe3, known as Paulsen’s Attack, where White intends to castle queenside.

Black usually continues 4…Nf6 and follows with 5…Be7, intending to open up lines as soon as possible with …d7–d5.

Other solid options for Black include 4…g6 and 4…Bb4+.

### 5. What is the Danish Gambit and how is it related to the Center Game?

The Danish Gambit is an aggressive chess opening that starts from the same position as the Center Game but deviates at move 3 with 3.c3 instead of 3.Qxd4.

This gambit aims to rapidly develop White’s pieces at the cost of one or two pawns.

Despite starting from the same position, the Danish Gambit has its own unique characteristics and is considered a separate opening.

### 6. What about other variations like 3.Nf3 or 3.Bc4 in the Center Game?

In the Center Game, White can postpone recapturing the pawn on d4 and instead develop a piece with 3.Nf3 or 3.Bc4.

However, these moves are less common. After 3.Nf3, Black can safely transpose to the Scotch Game, Petrov’s Defense, or the Philidor Defense, or play a line recommended by Alexander Alekhine with 3…Bc5 4.Nxd4 Nf6.

Similar ideas can be employed after 3.Bc4, which is also not frequently seen in high-level play.

This move is sometimes referred to as the Center Gambit in older chess works.

### 7. What is the Halasz Gambit?

The Halasz Gambit, starting with the rare move 3.f4 in the Center Game, is an aggressive approach pioneered by the Hungarian correspondence player Dr. György Halasz.

Although this gambit seems dubious and is not frequently seen, it has not been definitively refuted.

It offers a unique, unorthodox way to approach the opening with an emphasis on tactical complications.

## Conclusion

The Center Game is a compelling and engaging chess opening, offering rich strategic depth and intriguing theoretical principles.

Its historical legacy and ongoing evolution make it a rewarding study for chess enthusiasts of varying skill levels.

From the challenge of controlling the center to the mastery of complex variations, the Center Game presents an exciting journey into the world of chess strategy.

Whether you are a novice getting to grips with the fundamental principles or an intermediate player looking to refine your strategic acuity, the Center Game offers a wealth of opportunities for growth and enjoyment.